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Påven till tyska Bundestag: Naturrätten grunden för en god politisk kultur.
Bengts Blogg

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Påvens besök i Tyskland har inte förbigåtts med samma medietystnad som besöket i Storbritannien för ett år sedan eller besöket i Madrid i samband med WYD.

DN hade två hela sidor igår, visserligen med fokus på kritiska röster  mot Vatikanen och påven, men ändå relativt opartiskt skildrat.

Påvens tal är väl genomtänkta och intressanta att ta del av. 23 sept talade han i Bundestag till de tyska parlamentarikerna, synd att TT-telegrammet som återgavs i många tidningar gav en så missvisande bild av vad talet handlade om. Det sades handla om "vikten av att avvisa en intellektuell syn på Gud", när det i själva verket var precis tvärtom, vikten av att frågan om Gud inte blir rent subjektiv utan också behandlas förnuftigt och i det offentliga samtalet.

Påven pratade om Europas och Tysklands judisk-kristna, grekiska och romerska rötter och om naturrätten som grund för den politiska kulturen.

Jag refererar talet här och återger delar av det (mina fet-markeringar):

Påven började med att anslå temat om att skilja mellan gott och ont genom att referera till kung Salomos önskan, inte om framgång och rikedom utan om ett lyhört hjärta (1 Kung 3:9). Påven föreslog att detta skulle vara inställningen hos varje politiker.

"Through this story, the Bible wants to tell us what should ultimately matter for a politician. His fundamental criterion and the motivation for his work as a politician must not be success, and certainly not material gain. Politics must be a striving for justice, and hence it has to establish the fundamental preconditions for peace. Naturally a politician will seek success, without which he would have no opportunity for effective political action at all. Yet success is subordinated to the criterion of justice, to the will to do what is right, and to the understanding of what is right. Success can also be seductive and thus can open up the path towards the falsification of what is right, towards the destruction of justice. “Without justice – what else is the State but a great band of robbers?”, as Saint Augustine once said. We Germans know from our own experience that these words are no empty spectre."

Att finna och utöva vad som är rätt har aldrig varit givet, vilket många orättfärdiga regimer är exempel på, påven hänvisade till Tysklands mörka historia med nazismen. Vad som är rätt och lagligt kan aldrig vara föremål för godtycke, därför gör olika motståndsrörelser mot förtryckarregimer en stor insats för rättvisan, och för hela mänskligheten. I historien har lagarna ofta motiverats utifrån religionen, men kristen tro har aldrig påstått att statens och samhällets lagar kommer direkt från från den kristna uppenbarelsen. Istället pekar kristendomen på naturen och förnuftet som de riktiga källorna för juridiken. Det finns en harmoni melland et objektiva förnuftet (ventenskapen) och det subjektiva förnuftet (samvetet, intuitionen), där den kristna förståelsen är att de båda är rotade i Guds skapande förnuft. Genom att urskilja naturrätten övar man upp förmågan att skilja mellan gott och ont och kan på så sätt etablera rättvisa och fred i samhället. Detta har varit ett grundläggande arv som präglat den europeiska kulturen och identiteten.

The conviction that there is a Creator God is what gave rise to the idea of human rights, the idea of the equality of all people before the law, the recognition of the inviolability of human dignity in every single person and the awareness of people’s responsibility for their actions. Our cultural memory is shaped by these rational insights…. The culture of Europe arose from the encounter between Jerusalem, Athens and Rome—from the encounter between Israel’s monotheism, the philosophical reason of the Greeks and Roman law. This three-way encounter has shaped the inner identity of Europe.

Fram till upplysningen och utformandet av FN´s deklaration av de mänskliga rättigheterna efter Andra världskriget var naturrätten den självklara utgångspunkten:

"For the development of law and for the development of humanity, it was highly significant that Christian theologians aligned themselves against the religious law associated with polytheism and on the side of philosophy, and that they acknowledged reason and nature in their interrelation as the universally valid source of law. This step had already been taken by Saint Paul in the Letter to the Romans, when he said: “When Gentiles who have not the Law [the Torah of Israel] do by nature what the law requires, they are a law to themselves ... they show that what the law requires is written on their hearts, while their conscience also bears witness ...” (Rom 2:14f.). Here we see the two fundamental concepts of nature and conscience, where conscience is nothing other than Solomon’s listening heart, reason that is open to the language of being."

I och med dagens positivistiska vetenskapssyn är naturrätten inte längre givet förankrad i den Europeiska kulturen, utan ses som något specifikt katolskt. Påven problematiserar detta:

"...there has been a dramatic shift in the situation in the last half-century. The idea of natural law is today viewed as a specifically Catholic doctrine, not worth bringing into the discussion in a non-Catholic environment, so that one feels almost ashamed even to mention the term. Let me outline briefly how this situation arose. Fundamentally it is because of the idea that an unbridgeable gulf exists between “is” and “ought”. An “ought” can never follow from an “is”, because the two are situated on completely different planes. The reason for this is that in the meantime, the positivist understanding of nature has come to be almost universally accepted. If nature – in the words of Hans Kelsen – is viewed as “an aggregate of objective data linked together in terms of cause and effect”, then indeed no ethical indication of any kind can be derived from it. A positivist conception of nature as purely functional, as the natural sciences consider it to be, is incapable of producing any bridge to ethics and law, but once again yields only functional answers. The same also applies to reason, according to the positivist understanding that is widely held to be the only genuinely scientific one. Anything that is not verifiable or falsifiable, according to this understanding, does not belong to the realm of reason strictly understood. Hence ethics and religion must be assigned to the subjective field, and they remain extraneous to the realm of reason in the strict sense of the word. Where positivist reason dominates the field to the exclusion of all else – and that is broadly the case in our public mindset – then the classical sources of knowledge for ethics and law are excluded. This is a dramatic situation which affects everyone, and on which a public debate is necessary. Indeed, an essential goal of this address is to issue an urgent invitation to launch one."

Påven beskriver varför det är viktigt att inte isolera den del av kulturen som är utanför det funktionella vetenskapliga förnuftet till subkulturer. Den naturliga lagen är en pålitlig källa för politiskt beslutsfattande och lagstiftning.

"Where positivist reason considers itself the only sufficient culture and banishes all other cultural realities to the status of subcultures, it diminishes man, indeed it threatens his humanity. I say this with Europe specifically in mind, where there are concerted efforts to recognize only positivism as a common culture and a common basis for law-making, reducing all the other insights and values of our culture to the level of subculture, with the result that Europe vis-à-vis other world cultures is left in a state of culturelessness and at the same time extremist and radical movements emerge to fill the vacuum." In its self-proclaimed exclusivity, the positivist reason which recognizes nothing beyond mere functionality resembles a concrete bunker with no windows, in which we ourselves provide lighting and atmospheric conditions, being no longer willing to obtain either from God’s wide world. And yet we cannot hide from ourselves the fact that even in this artificial world, we are still covertly drawing upon God’s raw materials, which we refashion into our own products. The windows must be flung open again, we must see the wide world, the sky and the earth once more and learn to make proper use of all this.

Därefter nämner påven det ökade miljö-medvetandet på 1970-talet som ett tecken på ökat medvetande.

"The importance of ecology is no longer disputed. We must listen to the language of nature and we must answer accordingly. Yet I would like to underline a point that seems to me to be neglected, today as in the past: there is also an ecology of man. Man too has a nature that he must respect and that he cannot manipulate at will. Man is not merely self-creating freedom. Man does not create himself. He is intellect and will, but he is also nature, and his will is rightly ordered if he respects his nature, listens to it and accepts himself for who he is, as one who did not create himself. In this way, and in no other, is true human freedom fulfilled."

Påven avslutar med att utmana parlamentarikerna att det enda raka som lagstiftare idag är att utbe sig om samma lyhörda hjärta som Salomo gjorde:

"...the young King Solomon was invited to make a request. How would it be if we, the law-makers of today, were invited to make a request? What would we ask for? I think that, even today, there is ultimately nothing else we could wish for but a listening heart – the capacity to discern between good and evil, and thus to establish true law, to serve justice and peace. I thank you for your attention!"

Talet i sin helhet här. Videoupptagning från talet i parlamentet

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Posted 2011-9-24 8:57 by Bengt Malmgren
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Ansv. utgivare: Bengt Malmgren